Ghazali Musa

Department of Business Policy and Strategy
Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, MALAYSIA

Professor Ghazali was born on 14th April 1966 in Kg Pengkalan Berangan, Marang, Terengganu. He received his early education in Marang (Terengganu) and Kolej Islam Klang (Selangor). He studied medicine at the University of Malaya and graduated in 1991, following which he practiced medicine for 5 years in Terengganu, Sabah and University Malaya Medical Centre. In 1995, he received training in orthopedic and sports rehabilitation at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. In 1997, he resigned from his medical career and went to New Zealand to study Geography and Tourism Management. He received his PhD in Tourism Management from Otago University in 2002. Ghazali joined the Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University Malaya in 2003. In 2012, he was promoted to a full professor by the University. His area of expertise is Tourism management, especially in medical tourism, mountaineering tourism, scuba diving tourism, backpacking tourism, Malaysia My Second Home, sustainable tourism, among others. During the 14 years of his tenure with University Malaya, he has produced more than 100 publications, which include 8 books, 19 book chapters and 50 journal articles. Twenty of his journal manuscripts have been published in Tier 1 ISI journals. Ten of his journal publications are in Tourism Management, which is the world’s number one tourism journal with an impact factor of 4.7. He is active in carrying out both academic and consultancy research and has received a total in accumulative research funding of over RM 2 million. Professor Ghazali has been giving keynote addresses at conferences both nationally and internationally in Tourism Management. He is often either in the Editorial Board or Board of Advisors to several international journals, among which are Current Issues in Tourism, Asian Current Issues in Tourism, Annals of Leisure Research, International Journal of Tourism Cities and International Journal of Tourism and Travel. Locally he is in the editorial board of Asian Journal of Business and Accountancy. This year he has been appointed as the Editor in Chief for TEAM Journal of Tourism and Hospitality; a journal founded by the Tourism Educators Association of Malaysia. To his knowledge, as a tourism scholar, he is currently the most cited researcher in the country. At the faculty level, other than teaching and research work, he has also been constantly active in the management of the faculty by holding several current and previous posts such as Deputy Dean of Research and Development, Deputy Dean of Undergraduate Degrees, Head of Department for Marketing, Head of Department of Business Strategy and Policy, Head for Services and Innovation Centre and many others. Prof Ghazali is passionate about travel, nature, adventure and culture. His passion takes him travelling to over 100 countries. Professor Ghazali has only one biological child, a daughter who is 18 this year. However, he has fostered 15 children, of whom 8 are from 7 different countries. His main role to them is mentoring and providing financial support in their studies and also developing a unique family which is multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and multi-religious.


1.Anna Carr., Ghazali Musa., & James Higham (2015). Mountaineering Tourism. Routledge, London New York.
2.Idris, A., Moghavvemi,S., & Musa,G. (2015). Selected Theories in Social Science Research. University of Malaya Press.
3.Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2013). SCUBA Diving Tourism. Routledge, London & New York.
4.Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2012). SCUBA Diving Tourism. Tourism in Marine Environment Special Edition, Cognizant Communication Corporation.
5.Kalsom Kayat, Ghazali Musa, Nor Ashikin Mohd Nor & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2011). Tourism: An Introductory Notes and Cases from Malaysia. Malaysia: Pearson
6.Tze Ian Lee & Ghazali Musa (2009). Uncovering International Backpacker to Malaysia: A Tourism Market Segment Study. Saarbruken, Germany: VDM Verlag, Dr. Muller.
7.Ghazali Musa (2009). Sipadan: SCUBA Divers' Satisfaction. Saarbruken, Germany: VDM Verlag, Dr. Muller.
8.Ghazali Musa (2008). Travel Health Experience in High Altitude Destination: Case Studies of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and Tibet (China). VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Saarbruken, Germany

Chapter in Book
1.Ghazali Musa & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2017). Tourism in Malaysia. In Michael Hall & Stephen J Page (Eds.), Routledge Handbook on Tourism in Asia (pp.164-180). New York: Routledge.
2.Taha, A.Z., Mohktar, M., Musa, G. & Thirumoorthi, T. (2016). Destination Image and Travel Constraints: Perspectives of Disabled Tourists and Travel Companions. In Ainin Sulaiman (Ed), Moving Towards an Equitable Society, pp. 139-160, Kuala Lumpur; University of Malaya Press.
3.Ghazali Musa, Anna Thompson-Carr & James Higham (2015). Mountaineering Tourism: Looking to the Horizon. In Ghazali Musa, James Higham & Anna Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism (pp. 328-348). London and New York: Routledge ISBN-13: 978-1138782372
4.James Higham, Anna Thompson-Carr & Ghazali Musa (2015). Mountaineering Tourism: Activity, People and Place. In Ghazali Musa, James Higham & Anna Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering tourism (pp.1- 15). London New York: Routledge.
5.Aida Idris., Sedigheh Moghavvemi, & Ghazali Musa (2015). Theories in Entrepreneurship. In Aida Idris., Sedigheh Moghavvemi, & Ghazali Musa (Eds)., Selected Theories in Social Science Research (pp. 67-79). Kuala Lumpur: UM PRESS
6.Ghazali Musa., & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2015). Health and Safety Issues in Mountaineering Tourism. In Ghazali Musa, James Higham & Anna Thompson-Carr (Eds.), Mountaineering Tourism. Routledge (pp. 294- 312). London and New York: Routledge.ISBN-13: 978- 1138782372
7.Wong Kee Mun, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthy & Ghazali Musa (2013). SCUBA Diving Motivation, Chapter 6 (pp 107-116) in SCUBA Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock, Rutledge, London and New York.
8.Ong Tah Fatt & Ghazali Musa (2013). Responsible Underwater Behaviour, Chapter 5 (pp-117-133) in SCUBA Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2013, Rutledge, London and New York
9.Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthy, Kee Mun Wong & Ghazali Musa (2013). SCUBA Diving Satisfaction, Chapter 9 (pp 152-158) in SCUBA Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock, Routledge, London and New York.
10.Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2013). The Future and Sustainability of SCUBA Diving Tourism, Chapter 12 (pp 194-201) in SCUBA Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock, Rutledge, London and New York
11.Kay Dimmock, Terry Cummins & Ghazali Musa (2013). The Business of SCUBA Diving, Chapter 10 (161-173), in SCUBA Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock, Routledge, London and New York
12.Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2013). "Introduction: Scuba Diving Tourism, Chapter 1 (pp 3-13), in Scuba Diving Tourism, edited by Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2013, Rutledge, London and New York
13.Wong Kee Mun & Ghazali Musa (2012). Medical Tourism in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and India, Chapter 11 (pp 167-186), in Michael Hall (Ed.), Medical tourism: The ethics, Regulation and Marketing of Health Mobility. Routledge.
14.Ghazali Musa (2011). Sipadan a Case Study, in Thomas Hinch & James Higham (Eds.), Sport Tourism Development (Second Edition). Aspects of Tourism Book Series (pp. 130-133). Clevedon: Channel View Publications
15.Ghazali Musa & Tengku Che Melewar (2010). Kuala Lumpur: Searching for the Right Brand, in Keith Dennie (Ed.), City Branding (pp.162-168). London: Palgrave.
16.Lee Tze Ian & Ghazali Musa (2008). Uncovering the International Backpackers to Malaysia, in Kevin Hannam, Jeff Jarvis & Irena Ateljevic (Eds.), The Mobile Nomad: Critical Perspective on Backpacker Travel (pp. 128-143). Clevedon: Channel View Publication.
17.Lee Tze Ian & Ghazali Musa (2007). Exploring the Psychographics and Behavioural Characteristics of the International Backpackers to Malaysia, in Azilah Kasim & Shaharuddin Tahir (Eds.), Book of reading in tourism and hospitality (pp.69-88). Sentul: UUM Press.
18.Ghazali Musa (2005). The Importance of Health as a Factor in Achieving Sustainability in High Altitude Destination of a Less Developed Country: A Case Study of Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, in Michael Hall & Stephen Boyd (Eds.), Nature-based tourism in peripheral areas: Development or disaster? (pp.91-105). Clevedon: Channel View Publication.
19.Ghazali Musa (2003). Sipadan, an Over Exploited SCUBA Diving Paradise: An Analysis of Impact and Management Priorities, in Brian Garrod & Julie Wilson (Eds.), Marine ecotourism: Issues and Experiences (pp. 122-137). Clevedon: Channel View Publication

Article in Academic Journals
1.Rahman, K., Zailani, S & Musa, G (2017). What Travel Motivational Factors Influence Muslim Tourists Towards MMITD?, Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol 8, Issue 1, ISSN: 1759-0833, Emerald Publishing. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
2.Suhaiza Zailani, Muhammad Khalilur Rahman & Ghazali Musa (2017). Tapping into the Emerging Muslim Friendly Medical Tourism Market: Evidence from Malaysia", Journal of Islamic Marketing 8(3), January 2017 DOI: 10.1108/JIMA-02-2016-0014) (SCOPUS-Indexed)
3.Ghazali Musa, Shahrul Najmin, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi & Azni Zarina Taha (2017). Examining Visitors' Experience with Batu Caves, Using Four Realm Experiential Theory. International Journal of Tourism Cities. 3 (2): 105-120
4.Musa, G., Hemati, A., & Moghavvemi, S. (2017). The Influence of Islamic Religiosity on Muslim Students’ Travel Preferences, Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, In Press. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
5.Rahman, M.K., Zailani, S., & Musa, G. (2017). The Perceived Role of Islamic Medical Care Practice in Hospital: The Medical Doctor's Perspective. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 9 (1), pp.- (SCOPUS-Indexed)
6.Moghavvemi, S., Woosnam, K.M., Paramanathan, T., Musa, G., & Hamzah, A. (2017). The Effect of Residents’ Personality, Emotional Solidarity, and Community Commitment on Support for Tourism Development, Tourism Management, 63: 242-254 (ISI-Indexed, Tier 1)
7.Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Meghann Ormond, Ghazali Musa, Che Ruhana Mohamed Isa, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi, Mohd Zulkhairi bin Mustapha, Kanagi Kanapathy & Jacob John Chiremel Chandy (2017). Connecting with Prospective Medical Tourists Online: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Private Hospital Websites Promoting Medical Tourism in India, Malaysia and Thailand. Tourism Management, 58, 154-163. (ISI-Indexed, Tier 1)
8.Jaapar, M., Musa, G., Moghavvemi, S., & Saub, R. (2017). Dental Tourism: Examining Tourist Profiles, Motivation and Satisfaction, Tourism Management, 61: 538-552. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
9.Wong, B.K.M., Musa, G. & Taha, A.Z. (2017). Malaysia My Second Home: The Influence of Push and Pull Motivations on Satisfaction, Tourism Management, 61, 394-410 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
10.Ayako Kohno, Ghazali Musa, Nik Daliana Nik Farid, Norlaili Abdul Aziz, Takeo Nakayama & Maznah Dahlui. (2016). Issues in Healthcare Services in Malaysia as Experienced by Japanese retirees. BMC Health Services Research 16:167. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
11.Wong, K.M. & Musa, G. (2016) Malaysia My Second Home (MM2H): Retirees' Demographic Profile and Spending Dynamic, Tourism Management, vol 60, pages 42-46 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
12.Ayako Kohno, Nik Daliana Nik Farid, Ghazali Musa, Norlaili Abdul Aziz,Takeo Nakayama & Maznah Dahlui (2016). Factors Affecting Japanese Retirees' Healthcare Service Utilisation in Malaysia: a Qualitative Study. BMJ Open. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
13.Suhaiza Zailani, Suhana Mohezar Ali, Mohammad Iranmanesh, Sedigheh Moghavemmi & Ghazali Musa (2016). Predicting Muslim Medical Tourists' Satisfaction with Malaysian Islamic Friendly Hospitals, Tourism Management, 57:159-167 July 2016 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
14.Ghazali Musa, Izzah Mohammad, Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi & Azilah Kasim (2015). Exploring Visitors Experience Using Strategic Experiential Module: The Case of Zoo Negara, Kuala Lumpur. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 1(3), 234-253.
15.Cody Morris Paris, Ghazali Musa & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2015). A Comparison Between Asian and Australasia Backpackers Using Cultural Consensus Analysis, Current Issues in Tourism, 18(2), 175-195. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.920771 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
16.Kay Dimmock & Ghazali Musa (2015). Scuba Diving Tourism System: A Framework for Collaborative Management and Sustainability, Marine Policy, 54 (2015) 52-58 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
17.Kee Mun Wong & Ghazali Musa (2014). International Second Home Retirement Motives in Malaysia: Comparing British and Japanese Retirees, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2014.950303 (ISI-Indexed)
18.Sharifah Fatimah Syed-Ahmad, Ghazali Musa, Jane E. Klobas & Jamie Murphy (2013) Audience Response to Travel Photos and Arab Destination Image, Journal Travel and Tourism Research, Volume: 30 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 161-164 (ISI-Indexed)
19.Ghazali Musa & Sedigheh Moghavammi (2013) The Price of the Civilization, Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, volume 6, Issue 1, pp 1-14 (SCOPUS-Indexed)
20.Wong Kee Mun & Ghazali Musa (2013). Retirement Motivation among Malaysia My Second Home Participants, Tourism Management, presently available on-line at (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
21.Ghazali Musa, Dharmesh Doshi, Wong Kee Mun & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2012). How satisfied are medical tourists in Malaysia? A study on Private Hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Travel & Tourism Research. Published online (DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2012.720150) pages 629-646 (ISI-Indexed)
22.Ghazali Musa & Kay Dimmock (2012). Introduction to SCUBA Diving Tourism Special Edition. Tourism in Marine Environment, 8(1/2), 1-5 (ISI-Indexed)
23.Hamira Zamani Farahani & Ghazali Musa (2012). The Relationship between Islamic Religiosity and Residents' Perception of Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism in Iran: Case Studies of Sare'in and Masooleh. Tourism Management, 33(4),802-814. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
24.Ong Tah Fatt & Ghazali Musa (2012). Examining the Influences of Experience, Personality and Attitude on SCUBA divers’ Underwater Behaviour: A Structural Equation Modelling, Tourism Management, 1-14. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
25.Nilakshi, W.K. Galahitiyawe & Ghazali Musa (2012). Outsourcing Success: Critical Managerial Factors in the Services Sector. The International Journal of Research Publications, 1(9), 193-212.
26.Solha Husin, Packianathan Chelladurai & Ghazali Musa (2012). HRM Practices, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Perceived Service Quality in Golf Courses. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 143-158. (ISI-Indexed)
27.Ghazali Musa, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi & Dharmesh Doshi (2012). Travel Behaviour among Health Tourists in Kuala Lumpur. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(6),525-543. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
28.Ghazali Musa & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2011). Exploring Service Quality and Servicescape of the Best Backpacker Hostel in Asia. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(2), 103-120. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
29.Wong Kee Mun & Ghazali Musa (2011). Branding Satisfaction of Airlines: Comparative Study of Malaysian Airlines and Airasia. African Journal of Business Management, 5(8), 3410-3423. (ISI-Indexed)
30.Ghazali Musa, Wong Tong Seng & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2011). The Influence of SCUBA Divers Personality, Experience and Demographic Profile on Their Underwater Behaviour. Tourism in Marine Environment, 7(1), 1-14. (ISI-Indexed)
31.Ong Tah Fatt & Ghazali Musa (2011). SCUBA Divers Underwater Responsible Behaviour: Can Environmental Concern and Divers Attitude Make a Difference? Current Issues in Tourism, iFirst article, 1-23 (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
32.Ghazali Musa & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2011). Asia as the New Master of the Business Universe (Edited speech of Lord Digby Jones). Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, 4(1), 113-125. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
33.Wong Kee Mun, Ghazali Musa & Wong Sek Khin (2011). A Review of Philosophical Assumptions in Management Research. African Journal of Business Management, 5(29), 11546-11550. (ISI/SCOPUS Indexed Publication)
34.Ong Tah Fatt & Ghazali Musa (2011). An Examination of Recreational Divers' Underwater Behaviour by Attitude Behaviour Theories. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(8), 779-795. (ISI-Indexed Tier 1)
35.Norzalita Abd Aziz, Ghazali Musa & Ainin Sulaiman (2010). The Influence of Predictors on Travel Website Adoption among Malaysian Travelers. African Journal of Marketing Management, 2(6), 107-122. (ISI-Indexed)
36.Norzalita Abdul Aziz, Ghazali Musa & Ainin Sulaiman (2010). The Influence of Travel Motivations and Social Factors on Travel Website Adoption among Malaysian Travellers. Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, 3(1)89-116. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
37.Ghazali Musa, Kalsom Kayat & Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi (2010). Exploring the Experiential Aspect of Rural Home-stay among Student Visitors Using Diary Method. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 14- 24. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
38.Keith Dinnie, Tengku Chik Melewar, Kai-Uwe Seidenfuss & Ghazali Musa (2010). Nation Branding and Integrated Marketing Communications - An ASEAN Perspective. International Marketing Review, 27(4), 388-403. (ISI-Indexed)
39.Ghazali Musa & Ong Fon Sim (2010). Travel Behaviour: A study of Older Malaysians. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(2), 177-192. (ISI-Indexed, Tier 1)
40.Ghazali Musa, Azni Zarina Taha & Suhana Mohezar (2008). Travel Behaviour among Disabled Travellers in Malaysia. ASEAN Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(2), 23-33.
41.Hamira Zamani-Farahani, Ghazali Musa & Mousod Abessi (2008). Influence of Socio-demographic Factors on Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism: Case Studies of Masooleh and Saree'n, Iran. International Journal of Culture and Tourism Research, 1(1), 111-122.
42.Hamira Zamani-Farahamani & Ghazali Musa (2008). Residents Attitudes and Perception Towards Tourism Development: A Case Study of Masooleh, Iran. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1233-1236. (ISI-Indexed, Tier 1)
43.Norzalita Abd Aziz, Ainin Sulaiman & Ghazali Musa (2008). Predicting the Influence of Travel Website Effectiveness Characteristics on Technology Acceptance and Marketing Implication. Jurnal Pengurusan, 27, 105-128. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
44.Norzalita Abd Aziz, Ainin Sulaiman & Ghazali Musa (2008). Understanding the Impact of Travel Effectiveness Characteristics on Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation of Travel Website Adoption: Malaysian Travellers Perspective. ASEAN Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1), 53-67.
45.Ghazali Musa, Sharifah Latifah Syed A. Kadir & Lawrence Lee (2006). Layang Layang: An Empirical Study on Scuba Divers' Satisfaction. Tourism in Marine Environments, 2(2), 89-102. (ISI-Indexed)
46.Tze Ian Lee & Ghazali Musa (2006). Exploring the motivation and travel characteristics of backpackers in Malaysia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 4(1), 85-100.
47.Ghazali Musa, Michael Hall & James Higham (2004). Tourism Sustainability and Health Impacts in High Altitude Adventure, Cultural and Ecotourism Destinations: A Case Study of Nepal’s Sagarmatha National Park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12(4), 306-331. (ISI-Indexed, Tier 1)
48.Ghazali Musa, James Higham & Michael Hall (2003). A Review of Tourist and Health Issues, with Particular Reference to Tibet. Journal of Tourism Review International,7(1), 37-49. (SCOPUS-Indexed)
49.Ghazali Musa (2002). Sipadan: A SCUBA diving paradise: An analysis of tourism impact, divers satisfaction and tourism management. Tourism Geographies, 4(2), 195-209. (ISI-Indexed)
50.Tunku Sara Ahmad, Ghazali Musa, Lee, J.K (1997). A review of the free flap failures in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Annals of Academy of Medicine, 26(6), 840-843. (ISI-Indexed)